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openDSME

Open-Source Implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Link Layer

Project Description

openDSME is an open source implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. It is designed be portable for various platforms, including simulation environments and hardware platforms including CometOS.

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard with its widespread usage in wireless sensor and actuator networks was recently extended by several techniques that allow reliable data transmission for critical applications, such as industrial plants. This includes the Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-channel Extension (DSME) that allows for distributed assignment of time slots on multiple channels.

The project page including source code and live results is available at www.openDSME.org.

Publications

Florian Meyer and Volker Turau. QMA: A Resource-efficient, Q-learning-based Multiple Access Scheme for the IIoT. In 2021 IEEE 41st International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), IEEE, October 2021, pp. 864–874. Washington DC, USA / Virtually.
@InProceedings{Telematik_icdcs_2021, author = {Florian Meyer and Volker Turau}, title = {QMA: A Resource-efficient, Q-learning-based Multiple Access Scheme for the IIoT}, booktitle = {2021 IEEE 41st International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS)}, pages = {864-874}, publisher = {IEEE}, day = {7-10}, month = oct, year = 2021, location = {Washington DC, USA / Virtually}, }
Abstract: Many MAC protocols for the Industrial Internet of Things, such as IEEE 802.15.4 and its extensions, require contention-based channel access for management traffic, e.g., for slot (de)allocations and broadcasts. In many cases, subtle but hidden patterns characterize this secondary traffic, but present contention-based protocols are unaware of these patterns and therefore cannot exploit them. Especially in dense networks, these protocols often do not provide sufficient throughput and reliability for primary traffic, i.e., they cannot allocate transmission slots in time. In this paper, we propose QMA, a contention-based multiple access scheme based on Q-learning. It dynamically adjusts transmission times to avoid collisions by learning patterns in contention-based traffic. We show that QMA solves the hidden node problem without the overhead for RTS/CTS messages and, for example, increases throughput from 10 packets/s to 50 packets/s in a hidden three-node scenario without sacrificing reliability. Additionally, QMA's scalability is evaluated in a realistic scenario for slot (de)allocation in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME, where it achieves up to twice more slot (de)allocations per second.
Florian Meyer, Ivonne Andrea Mantilla-Gonzales and Volker Turau. New CAP Reduction Mechanisms for IEEE 802.15.4 DSME to SupportFluctuating Traffic in IoT Systems. In Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc-Now 2020), Springer, October 2020, pp. 159–179. Bari, Italy / Virtually.
@InProceedings{Telematik_adhocnow_2020, author = {Florian Meyer and Ivonne Andrea Mantilla-Gonzales and Volker Turau}, title = {New CAP Reduction Mechanisms for IEEE 802.15.4 DSME to SupportFluctuating Traffic in IoT Systems}, booktitle = {Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc-Now 2020)}, pages = {159-179}, publisher = {Springer}, day = {19-21}, month = oct, year = 2020, location = {Bari, Italy / Virtually}, }
Abstract: In 2015, the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was expanded by theDeterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) toincrease reliability, scalability and energy-efficiency in industrial appli-cations. The extension offers a TDMA/FDMA-based channel access,where time is divided into two alternating phases, a contention accessperiod (CAP) and a contention free period (CFP). During the CAP, transmission slots can be allocated offering an exclusive access to theshared medium during the CFP. The fractionτof CFP’s time slots ina dataframe is a critical value, because it directly influences agility andthroughput. A high throughput demands that the CFP is much longerthan the CAP, i.e., a high value ofτ, because application data is only sentduring the CFP. High agility is given if the expected waiting time to senda CAP message is short and that the length of the CAPs are long enoughto accommodate necessary GTS negotiations, i.e., a low value ofτ. OnceDSME is configured according to the needs of an application,τcan onlyassume one of two values and cannot be changed at run-time. In thispaper, we propose two extensions of DSME that allow to adoptτto thecurrent traffic pattern. We show theoretically and through simulationsthat the proposed extensions provide a high degree of responsiveness totraffic fluctuations while keeping the throughput high.
Florian Meyer, Ivonne Mantilla and Volker Turau. Sending Multiple Packets per Guaranteed Time Slot in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME: Analysis and Evaluation. Internet Technology Letters, April 2020.
@Article{Telematik__2020, author = {Florian Meyer and Ivonne Mantilla and Volker Turau}, title = {Sending Multiple Packets per Guaranteed Time Slot in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME: Analysis and Evaluation}, pages = , journal = {Internet Technology Letters}, publisher = {Wiley Online Scientific}, month = apr, year = 2020, }
Abstract: Coping with bursty traffic is a common yet challenging task in the industrial Internet of Things (IoT). For example, 6LoWPAN 1 is a standard that defines the integration of LoWPAN 2 with IPv6, by fragmenting large IPv6 packets into several smaller MAC‐layer packets. Therefore, it is necessary to envision message delivery mechanisms, which provide support for highly varying traffic. In this paper, we analyze sending multiple packets per guaranteed time slot (GTS) in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME to alleviate traffic during the contention‐access period (CAP) and increase the reliability in scenarios with bursty traffic. The evaluation shows that increasing parameter SO extends the network throughput beyond default operating conditions and also provides overprovisioning beneficial for delivering sporadic messages. A comparison with the transmission of a single packet per GTS demonstrates a reduction of the total number of transmitted CAP messages by 99% while increasing the packet reception ratio by 48% for bursts with 20 packets.
Florian Meyer and Volker Turau. Towards Delay-Minimal Scheduling through Reinforcement Learning in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. In Proceedings of the First GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräche Machine Learning and Networking, February 2020. München, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_meyer_FGMLVS, author = {Florian Meyer and Volker Turau}, title = {Towards Delay-Minimal Scheduling through Reinforcement Learning in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the First GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespr{\"a}che Machine Learning and Networking}, pages = , publisher = {}, day = {20-21}, month = feb, year = 2020, location = {M{\"u}nchen, Germany}, }
Abstract: The rise of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in industrial applications imposes novel demands on existing wire- less protocols. The deterministic and synchronous multi-channel extension (DSME) is a recent amendment to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which aims for highly reliable, deterministic traffic in these industrial environments. It offers TDMA-based channel access, where slots are allocated in a distributed manner. In this work, we propose a novel scheduling algorithm for DSME which minimizes the delay in time-critical applications by employing reinforcement learning (RL) on deep neural networks (DNN).
Florian Meyer, Ivonne Andrea Mantilla-Gonzales, Florian Kauer and Volker Turau. Performance Analysis of the Slot Allocation Handshake in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. In Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc-Now 2019), Springer, October 2019, pp. 102–117. Luxembourg.
@InProceedings{Telematik_adhocnow_2019, author = {Florian Meyer and Ivonne Andrea Mantilla-Gonzales and Florian Kauer and Volker Turau}, title = {Performance Analysis of the Slot Allocation Handshake in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME}, booktitle = {Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc-Now 2019)}, pages = {102-117}, publisher = {Springer}, day = {1-3}, month = oct, year = 2019, location = {Luxembourg}, }
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks using IEEE 802.15.4 are getting increasingly popular for industrial applications because of low energy consumption and low maintenance costs. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard introduces DSME (Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-channel Extension). DSME uses time-slotted channel access to guarantee timely data delivery, multi-channel communication, and frequency hopping to mitigate the effects of external interferences. A distinguishing feature of DSME is its flexibility and adaptability to time-varying network traffic and to changes in the network topology. In this paper we evaluate the ability of DSME to adapt to time-varying network traffic. We examine the limits for slot allocation rates for different topologies. The evaluation is performed with openDSME, an open-source implementation of DSME.
Florian Meyer and Volker Turau. Delay-Bounded Scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4e DSME using Linear Programming. In Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), May 2019, pp. 659–666. Santorini, Greece.
@InProceedings{Telematik_ISIoT_2019, author = {Florian Meyer and Volker Turau}, title = {Delay-Bounded Scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4e DSME using Linear Programming}, booktitle = {Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS)}, pages = {659-666}, day = {29-31}, month = may, year = 2019, location = {Santorini, Greece}, }
Abstract: The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) protocol is a recent amendment to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It combines contention-based and time-division medium access, offers channel diversity, and is aimed to support IIoT applications with stringent requirements in terms of timeliness and reliability. In this paper, we show how to configure DSME for a given data collection task. This includes the definition of the slot and frame length and the slot and channel schedule. We formulate different scheduling strategies as linear programs minimizing latency and energy. We verify our results through theoretical analysis and simulations and compare them with state-of-the-art scheduling algorithms. The results indicate a reduced delay of up to 80% for deep networks while also increasing reliability. Additionally, the proposed scheduling strategies significantly reduce the required buffer size.
Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler and Turau Volker. openDSME: Reliable Time-Slotted Multi-Hop Communication for IEEE 802.15.4. Recent Advances in Network Simulation, 451–467, May 2019.
@Article{Telematik_omnet_2019_springer, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Turau Volker}, title = {openDSME: Reliable Time-Slotted Multi-Hop Communication for IEEE 802.15.4}, pages = {451-467}, journal = {Recent Advances in Network Simulation}, publisher = {Springer}, month = may, year = 2019, }
Abstract: Using wireless sensor and actuator networks in industrial applications promises timely and fine-grained feedback and control of plants. However, these applications call for very high reliability that cannot be fulfilled with contention-based medium access. Therefore, the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was extended with multiple time-slotted as well as frequency-agile medium access techniques. The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) is of particular interest due to its extensive set of standardized methods for distributed slot management. This chapter presents openDSME, a comprehensive implementation of DSME to be used in the OMNeT++ simulator as well as on real-life wireless sensor nodes. The main features of DSME are presented, together with implementation details of openDSME. The chapter concludes with a step-by-step tutorial to get started with openDSME.
Janina Hellwege, Maximilian Köstler and Florian Kauer. Live Monitoring and Remote Control of OMNeT++ Simulations. Recent Advances in Network Simulation, 301–316, May 2019.
@Article{Telematik_omnet_2019, author = {Janina Hellwege and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Florian Kauer}, title = {Live Monitoring and Remote Control of OMNeT++ Simulations}, pages = {301-316}, journal = {Recent Advances in Network Simulation}, publisher = {Springer}, month = may, year = 2019, }
Abstract: Using event-based simulations is an excellent method for demonstrating and learning the functionality of computer networks. OMNeT++ provides many features for building and analyzing networks and is widely used in research and teaching. It is, however, difficult to influence a running simulation and the interfaces are more optimized for in-depth analyses so it is easy to get distracted from the main point of interest. This motivation led to the development of a remote interface for the OMNeT++ simulator that facilitates live modifications of parameters as well as monitoring of events. It is based on web technologies and allows for convenient creation of customized interactive interfaces for conferences, fairs, or teaching environments.
Florian Kauer. Scalable Wireless Multi-Hop Networks for Industrial Applications. PhD Thesis, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany, 2019.
@PhdThesis{Telematik_Kauer_2019_Diss, author = {Florian Kauer}, title = {Scalable Wireless Multi-Hop Networks for Industrial Applications}, school = {Hamburg University of Technology}, address = {Hamburg, Germany}, year = 2019, }
Abstract: Wireless technology promises flexible and cost-efficient machine-to-machine communication. However, high packet loss can emerge from simultaneous transmissions of many devices, undermining the reliability required for industrial applications. This thesis analyzes and develops techniques for time-slotted multi-hop communication with focus on IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. In a holistic approach, simulations, formal and analytical analyses and testbed experiments are combined, concluding the utility of the proposed methods. For future usage in research and real-world deployments, openDSME is developed as open-source implementation of DSME and application-specific insights are provided.
Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler and Volker Turau. Reliable Wireless Multi-Hop Networks with Decentralized Slot Management: An Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. Technical Report Report arXiv:1806.10521, arXiv.org e-Print Archive - Computing Research Repository (CoRR), Cornell University, August 2018.
@TechReport{Telematik2018, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Volker Turau}, title = {Reliable Wireless Multi-Hop Networks with Decentralized Slot Management: An Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME}, number = {Report arXiv:1806.10521}, institution = {arXiv.org e-Print Archive - Computing Research Repository (CoRR)}, address = {Cornell University}, month = aug, year = 2018, }
Abstract: Wireless communication is a key element in the realization of the Industrial Internet of Things for flexible and cost-efficient monitoring and control of industrial processes. Wireless mesh networks using IEEE 802.15.4 have a high potential for executing monitoring and control tasks with low energy consumption and low costs for deployment and maintenance. However, conventional medium access techniques based on carrier sensing cannot provide the required reliability for industrial applications. Therefore, the standard was extended with techniques for time-slotted medium access on multiple channels. In this paper, we present openDSME, a comprehensive implementation of the Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-channel Extension (DSME) and propose a method for traffic-aware and decentralized slot scheduling to enable scalable wireless industrial networks. The performance of DSME and our implementation is demonstrated in the OMNeT++ simulator and on a physically deployed wireless network in the FIT/IoT-LAB. It is shown that in the given scenarios, twice as much traffic can be delivered reliably by using DSME instead of CSMA/CA and that the energy consumption can be reduced significantly. The paper is completed by presenting important trade-offs for parameter selection and by uncovering open issues of the current specification that call for further effort in research and standardization.
Florian Kauer and Volker Turau. An Analytical Model for Wireless Mesh Networks with Collision-Free TDMA and Finite Queues. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, June 2018.
@Article{Telematik_openaccess_2018, author = {Florian Kauer and Volker Turau}, title = {An Analytical Model for Wireless Mesh Networks with Collision-Free TDMA and Finite Queues}, pages = , journal = {EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking}, volume = {}, month = jun, year = 2018, }
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks are a promising technology for connecting sensors and actuators with high flexibility and low investment costs. In industrial applications, however, reliability is essential. Therefore, two time-slotted medium access methods, DSME and TSCH, were added to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. They allow collision-free communication in multi-hop networks and provide channel hopping for mitigating external interferences. The slot schedule used in these networks is of high importance for the network performance. This paper supports the development of efficient schedules by providing an analytical model for the assessment of such schedules, focused on TSCH. A Markov chain model for the finite queue on every node is introduced that takes the slot distribution into account. The models of all nodes are interconnected to calculate network metrics such as packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and throughput. An evaluation compares the model with a simulation of the Orchestra schedule. The model is applied to Orchestra as well as to two simple distributed scheduling algorithms to demonstrate the importance of traffic-awareness for achieving high throughput.
Maximilian Köstler and Florian Kauer. A Remote Interface for Live Interaction with OMNeT++ Simulations. In Proceedings of the 4th OMNeT++ Community Summit 2017, September 2017. Bremen, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_OMNETPP_2017, author = {Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Florian Kauer}, title = {A Remote Interface for Live Interaction with OMNeT++ Simulations}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th OMNeT++ Community Summit 2017}, number = {arXiv:1709.02822}, day = {07-08}, month = sep, year = 2017, location = {Bremen, Germany}, }
Abstract: Discrete event simulators, such as OMNeT++, provide fast and convenient methods for the assessment of algorithms and protocols, especially in the context of wired and wireless networks. Usually, simulation parameters such as topology and traffic patterns are predefined to observe the behaviour reproducibly. However, for learning about the dynamic behaviour of a system, a live interaction that allows changing parameters on the fly is very helpful. This is especially interesting for providing interactive demonstrations at conferences and fairs. In this paper, we present a remote interface to OMNeT++ simulations that can be used to control the simulations while visualising real-time data merged from multiple OMNeT++ instances. We explain the software architecture behind our framework and how it can be used to build demonstrations on the foundation of OMNeT++.
Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler, Tobias Lübkert and Volker Turau. OpenDSME - A Portable Framework for Reliable Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (Demonstration). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys 2017), March 2017, pp. 1–2. Göttingen, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_Netsys_2017, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Tobias L{\"u}bkert and Volker Turau}, title = {OpenDSME - A Portable Framework for Reliable Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (Demonstration)}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys 2017)}, pages = {1-2}, day = {13-16}, month = mar, year = 2017, location = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, }
Abstract: The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard provides a data link layer for time division multiple access in wireless mesh networks. The authors present openDSME, a portable implementation for hardware and simulators which promises reliable message transfer suitable for applications in demanding industrial environments. A demonstration has been developed to illustrate the performance of openDSME in a simulated network and to show its benefits over CSMA/CA.
Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler, Tobias Lübkert and Volker Turau. Formal Analysis and Verification of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Slot Allocation. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, November 2016, pp. 140–147. Malta.
@InProceedings{Telematik_MSWIM_Formal_DSME, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Tobias L{\"u}bkert and Volker Turau}, title = {Formal Analysis and Verification of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Slot Allocation}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems}, pages = {140-147}, month = nov, year = 2016, location = {Malta}, }
Abstract: Providing dependability is still a major issue for wireless mesh networks, which restrains their application in industrial contexts. The widespread CSMA/CA medium access can provide high throughput and low latency, but can not prevent packet loss due to collisions, especially in very large and dense networks. Time slotted medium access techniques together with a distributed slot management, as proposed by the Distributed Synchronous Multi-channel Extension (DSME) of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, are promising to provide low packet loss, high scalability and bounded end-to-end delays. However, our implementation, openDSME, exposed some weaknesses. While the allocated slots allow for reliable data transmission, the slot management itself is conducted via CSMA/CA and is thus vulnerable to packet loss, eventually leading to an inconsistent slot allocation. This paper uses the UPPAAL framework for formal analysis and verification of the slot management process. The analysis identifies weaknesses of the slot allocation process under communication and node failures. However, it is shown that inconsistencies are eventually resolved and improvements to the procedure are proposed that reduce the negative impact of failed slot allocation procedures significantly.
Maximilian Köstler, Florian Kauer, Tobias Lübkert and Volker Turau. Towards an Open Source Implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Link Layer. In Proceedings of the 15. GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch Sensornetze, University of Applied Sciences Augsburg, Dept. of Computer Science, September 2016. Augsburg, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_FGSN_openDSME, author = {Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Florian Kauer and Tobias L{\"u}bkert and Volker Turau}, editor = {Juergen Scholz and Alexander von Bodisco}, title = {Towards an Open Source Implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Link Layer}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15. GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespr{\"a}ch Sensornetze}, pages = , publisher = {University of Applied Sciences Augsburg, Dept. of Computer Science}, day = {22-23}, month = sep, year = 2016, location = {Augsburg, Germany}, }
Abstract: Reliable wireless solutions for large-scale automation are a major challenge today. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard forms the basis for many open and proprietary implementations. To reflect current state-of-the-art techniques, the IEEE has amended standard 802.15.4 with new MAC-layers such as TSCH, which resembles WirelessHART, and the Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME). This paper introduces openDSME, our implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. DSME aims at preventing packet collisions through slot reservation in networks where conventional CSMA/CA is not reliable enough. In this document, we will outline core features of DSME and openDSME, and present details of our implementation. Additionally, current research efforts on connected topics will be highlighted.

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