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Publications

Journal Articles | Conference Contributions | Technical Reports

Journal Articles

Florian Meyer, Ivonne Mantilla and Volker Turau. Sending Multiple Packets per Guaranteed Time Slot in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME: Analysis and Evaluation. Internet Technology Letters, April 2020.
@Article{Telematik__2020, author = {Florian Meyer and Ivonne Mantilla and Volker Turau}, title = {Sending Multiple Packets per Guaranteed Time Slot in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME: Analysis and Evaluation}, pages = , journal = {Internet Technology Letters}, publisher = {Wiley Online Scientific}, month = apr, year = 2020, }
Abstract: Coping with bursty traffic is a common yet challenging task in the industrial Internet of Things (IoT). For example, 6LoWPAN 1 is a standard that defines the integration of LoWPAN 2 with IPv6, by fragmenting large IPv6 packets into several smaller MAC‐layer packets. Therefore, it is necessary to envision message delivery mechanisms, which provide support for highly varying traffic. In this paper, we analyze sending multiple packets per guaranteed time slot (GTS) in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME to alleviate traffic during the contention‐access period (CAP) and increase the reliability in scenarios with bursty traffic. The evaluation shows that increasing parameter SO extends the network throughput beyond default operating conditions and also provides overprovisioning beneficial for delivering sporadic messages. A comparison with the transmission of a single packet per GTS demonstrates a reduction of the total number of transmitted CAP messages by 99% while increasing the packet reception ratio by 48% for bursts with 20 packets.

Conference Contributions

Florian Meyer, Ivonne Andrea Mantilla-Gonzales, Florian Kauer and Volker Turau. Performance Analysis of the Slot Allocation Handshake in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. In Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc-Now 2019), Springer, October 2019, pp. 102–117. Luxembourg.
@InProceedings{Telematik_adhocnow_2019, author = {Florian Meyer and Ivonne Andrea Mantilla-Gonzales and Florian Kauer and Volker Turau}, title = {Performance Analysis of the Slot Allocation Handshake in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME}, booktitle = {Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc-Now 2019)}, pages = {102-117}, publisher = {Springer}, day = {1-3}, month = oct, year = 2019, location = {Luxembourg}, }
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks using IEEE 802.15.4 are getting increasingly popular for industrial applications because of low energy consumption and low maintenance costs. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard introduces DSME (Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-channel Extension). DSME uses time-slotted channel access to guarantee timely data delivery, multi-channel communication, and frequency hopping to mitigate the effects of external interferences. A distinguishing feature of DSME is its flexibility and adaptability to time-varying network traffic and to changes in the network topology. In this paper we evaluate the ability of DSME to adapt to time-varying network traffic. We examine the limits for slot allocation rates for different topologies. The evaluation is performed with openDSME, an open-source implementation of DSME.
Florian Meyer and Volker Turau. Delay-Bounded Scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4e DSME using Linear Programming. In Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), May 2019, pp. 659–666. Santorini, Greece.
@InProceedings{Telematik_ISIoT_2019, author = {Florian Meyer and Volker Turau}, title = {Delay-Bounded Scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4e DSME using Linear Programming}, booktitle = {Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS)}, pages = {659-666}, day = {29-31}, month = may, year = 2019, location = {Santorini, Greece}, }
Abstract: The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) protocol is a recent amendment to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It combines contention-based and time-division medium access, offers channel diversity, and is aimed to support IIoT applications with stringent requirements in terms of timeliness and reliability. In this paper, we show how to configure DSME for a given data collection task. This includes the definition of the slot and frame length and the slot and channel schedule. We formulate different scheduling strategies as linear programs minimizing latency and energy. We verify our results through theoretical analysis and simulations and compare them with state-of-the-art scheduling algorithms. The results indicate a reduced delay of up to 80% for deep networks while also increasing reliability. Additionally, the proposed scheduling strategies significantly reduce the required buffer size.
Florian Kauer, Florian Meyer and Volker Turau. A Holistic Solution for Reliable Over-the-Air Software Updates in Large Industrial Plants. In Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Intelligent Solutions in Embedded Systems (WISES 2017), June 2017, pp. 29–34. Hamburg, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_WISES_2017, author = {Florian Kauer and Florian Meyer and Volker Turau}, title = {A Holistic Solution for Reliable Over-the-Air Software Updates in Large Industrial Plants}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Intelligent Solutions in Embedded Systems (WISES 2017)}, pages = {29-34}, day = {12-13}, month = jun, year = 2017, location = {Hamburg, Germany}, }
Abstract: In cyber-physical systems, such as modern industrial plants, complex software is an essential part that enables cost-effective and flexible operation. However, this complexity increases the probability of problems that only reveal themselves after the deployment. This is even more important if security aspects are involved. Therefore, providing the possibility for software updates is an important building block in the design of industrial plants. This paper presents a holistic concept for software updates in an industrial plant with thousands of wirelessly connected embedded devices. Using wireless technology imposes additional difficulties in terms of data rate, packet size and reliability that have to be addressed in particular. The contribution also includes an analytical model to estimate the time until a new firmware is distributed. Evaluations carried out on hardware as well as in the OMNeT++ simulator demonstrate the applicability and scalability of the proposed approach.

Technical Reports

Florian Meyer and Volker Turau. Towards Delay-Minimal Scheduling through Reinforcement Learning in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. Technical Report, February 2020.
@TechReport{Telematik_meyer_FGMLVS, author = {Florian Meyer and Volker Turau}, title = {Towards Delay-Minimal Scheduling through Reinforcement Learning in IEEE 802.15.4 DSME}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespr{\"a}che Machine Learning and Networking}, pages = , publisher = {}, day = {20-21}, month = feb, year = 2020, location = {M{\"u}nchen, Germany}, }
Abstract: The rise of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in industrial applications imposes novel demands on existing wire- less protocols. The deterministic and synchronous multi-channel extension (DSME) is a recent amendment to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which aims for highly reliable, deterministic traffic in these industrial environments. It offers TDMA-based channel access, where slots are allocated in a distributed manner. In this work, we propose a novel scheduling algorithm for DSME which minimizes the delay in time-critical applications by employing reinforcement learning (RL) on deep neural networks (DNN).