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Publications

Journal Articles | Conference Contributions | Technical Reports

Journal Articles

Kauer Florian, Maximilian Köstler and Turau Volker. openDSME: Reliable Time-Slotted Multi-Hop Communication for IEEE 802.15.4. May 2019.
@Article{Telematik_omnet_2019_springer, author = {Kauer Florian and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Turau Volker}, title = {openDSME: Reliable Time-Slotted Multi-Hop Communication for IEEE 802.15.4}, booktitle = {Recent Advances in Network Simulation}, pages = {451-467}, publisher = {Springer}, month = may, year = 2019, }
Abstract: Using wireless sensor and actuator networks in industrial applications promises timely and fine-grained feedback and control of plants. However, these applications call for very high reliability that cannot be fulfilled with contention-based medium access. Therefore, the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was extended with multiple time-slotted as well as frequency-agile medium access techniques. The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) is of particular interest due to its extensive set of standardized methods for distributed slot management. This chapter presents openDSME, a comprehensive implementation of DSME to be used in the OMNeT++ simulator as well as on real-life wireless sensor nodes. The main features of DSME are presented, together with implementation details of openDSME. The chapter concludes with a step-by-step tutorial to get started with openDSME.
Janina Hellwege, Maximilian Köstler and Florian Kauer. Live Monitoring and Remote Control of OMNeT++ Simulations. May 2019.
@Article{Telematik_omnet_2019, author = {Janina Hellwege and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Florian Kauer}, title = {Live Monitoring and Remote Control of OMNeT++ Simulations}, booktitle = {Recent Advances in Network Simulation}, pages = {301-316}, publisher = {Springer}, month = may, year = 2019, }
Abstract: Using event-based simulations is an excellent method for demonstrating and learning the functionality of computer networks. OMNeT++ provides many features for building and analyzing networks and is widely used in research and teaching. It is, however, difficult to influence a running simulation and the interfaces are more optimized for in-depth analyses so it is easy to get distracted from the main point of interest. This motivation led to the development of a remote interface for the OMNeT++ simulator that facilitates live modifications of parameters as well as monitoring of events. It is based on web technologies and allows for convenient creation of customized interactive interfaces for conferences, fairs, or teaching environments.

Conference Contributions

Maximilian Köstler and Florian Kauer. A Remote Interface for Live Interaction with OMNeT++ Simulations. In Proceedings of the 4th OMNeT++ Community Summit 2017, September 2017. Bremen, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_OMNETPP_2017, author = {Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Florian Kauer}, title = {A Remote Interface for Live Interaction with OMNeT++ Simulations}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th OMNeT++ Community Summit 2017}, number = {arXiv:1709.02822}, day = {07-08}, month = sep, year = 2017, location = {Bremen, Germany}, }
Abstract: Discrete event simulators, such as OMNeT++, provide fast and convenient methods for the assessment of algorithms and protocols, especially in the context of wired and wireless networks. Usually, simulation parameters such as topology and traffic patterns are predefined to observe the behaviour reproducibly. However, for learning about the dynamic behaviour of a system, a live interaction that allows changing parameters on the fly is very helpful. This is especially interesting for providing interactive demonstrations at conferences and fairs. In this paper, we present a remote interface to OMNeT++ simulations that can be used to control the simulations while visualising real-time data merged from multiple OMNeT++ instances. We explain the software architecture behind our framework and how it can be used to build demonstrations on the foundation of OMNeT++.
Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler, Tobias Lübkert and Volker Turau. OpenDSME - A Portable Framework for Reliable Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (Demonstration). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys 2017), March 2017, pp. 1–2. Göttingen, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_Netsys_2017, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Tobias L{\"u}bkert and Volker Turau}, title = {OpenDSME - A Portable Framework for Reliable Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (Demonstration)}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys 2017)}, pages = {1-2}, day = {13-16}, month = mar, year = 2017, location = {G{\"o}ttingen, Germany}, }
Abstract: The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard provides a data link layer for time division multiple access in wireless mesh networks. The authors present openDSME, a portable implementation for hardware and simulators which promises reliable message transfer suitable for applications in demanding industrial environments. A demonstration has been developed to illustrate the performance of openDSME in a simulated network and to show its benefits over CSMA/CA.
Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler, Tobias Lübkert and Volker Turau. Formal Analysis and Verification of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Slot Allocation. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, November 2016, pp. 140–147. Malta.
@InProceedings{Telematik_MSWIM_Formal_DSME, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Tobias L{\"u}bkert and Volker Turau}, title = {Formal Analysis and Verification of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Slot Allocation}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems}, pages = {140-147}, month = nov, year = 2016, location = {Malta}, }
Abstract: Providing dependability is still a major issue for wireless mesh networks, which restrains their application in industrial contexts. The widespread CSMA/CA medium access can provide high throughput and low latency, but can not prevent packet loss due to collisions, especially in very large and dense networks. Time slotted medium access techniques together with a distributed slot management, as proposed by the Distributed Synchronous Multi-channel Extension (DSME) of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, are promising to provide low packet loss, high scalability and bounded end-to-end delays. However, our implementation, openDSME, exposed some weaknesses. While the allocated slots allow for reliable data transmission, the slot management itself is conducted via CSMA/CA and is thus vulnerable to packet loss, eventually leading to an inconsistent slot allocation. This paper uses the UPPAAL framework for formal analysis and verification of the slot management process. The analysis identifies weaknesses of the slot allocation process under communication and node failures. However, it is shown that inconsistencies are eventually resolved and improvements to the procedure are proposed that reduce the negative impact of failed slot allocation procedures significantly.
Maximilian Köstler, Florian Kauer, Tobias Lübkert and Volker Turau. Towards an Open Source Implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Link Layer. In Proceedings of the 15. GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch Sensornetze, University of Applied Sciences Augsburg, Dept. of Computer Science, September 2016. Augsburg, Germany.
@InProceedings{Telematik_FGSN_openDSME, author = {Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Florian Kauer and Tobias L{\"u}bkert and Volker Turau}, editor = {Juergen Scholz and Alexander von Bodisco}, title = {Towards an Open Source Implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME Link Layer}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15. GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespr{\"a}ch Sensornetze}, pages = , publisher = {University of Applied Sciences Augsburg, Dept. of Computer Science}, day = {22-23}, month = sep, year = 2016, location = {Augsburg, Germany}, }
Abstract: Reliable wireless solutions for large-scale automation are a major challenge today. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard forms the basis for many open and proprietary implementations. To reflect current state-of-the-art techniques, the IEEE has amended standard 802.15.4 with new MAC-layers such as TSCH, which resembles WirelessHART, and the Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME). This paper introduces openDSME, our implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. DSME aims at preventing packet collisions through slot reservation in networks where conventional CSMA/CA is not reliable enough. In this document, we will outline core features of DSME and openDSME, and present details of our implementation. Additionally, current research efforts on connected topics will be highlighted.

Technical Reports

Florian Kauer, Maximilian Köstler and Volker Turau. Reliable Wireless Multi-Hop Networks with Decentralized Slot Management: An Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME. Technical Report arXiv:1806.10521, CoRR, Cornell University, August 2018.
@TechReport{Telematik2018, author = {Florian Kauer and Maximilian K{\"o}stler and Volker Turau}, title = {Reliable Wireless Multi-Hop Networks with Decentralized Slot Management: An Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME}, number = {arXiv:1806.10521}, institution = {CoRR}, address = {Cornell University}, month = aug, year = 2018, }
Abstract: Wireless communication is a key element in the realization of the Industrial Internet of Things for flexible and cost-efficient monitoring and control of industrial processes. Wireless mesh networks using IEEE 802.15.4 have a high potential for executing monitoring and control tasks with low energy consumption and low costs for deployment and maintenance. However, conventional medium access techniques based on carrier sensing cannot provide the required reliability for industrial applications. Therefore, the standard was extended with techniques for time-slotted medium access on multiple channels. In this paper, we present openDSME, a comprehensive implementation of the Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-channel Extension (DSME) and propose a method for traffic-aware and decentralized slot scheduling to enable scalable wireless industrial networks. The performance of DSME and our implementation is demonstrated in the OMNeT++ simulator and on a physically deployed wireless network in the FIT/IoT-LAB. It is shown that in the given scenarios, twice as much traffic can be delivered reliably by using DSME instead of CSMA/CA and that the energy consumption can be reduced significantly. The paper is completed by presenting important trade-offs for parameter selection and by uncovering open issues of the current specification that call for further effort in research and standardization.